ICIEVE 2015 - International

Innovation in Civil Engineering


Roman roadGuest post published by José María Castrillón Montes from ACCIONA Construction

Innovation is certainly not a brand new concept. It is a process whereby, through a particular activity, a feature is changed to give it another use or enhance the one it absolutely was initially created for. In the field of municipal engineering, innovation be an attitude.

In this specific article we are going to explain how the control has actually evolved, researching five municipal engineering innovations your Romans introduced 2, 000 years ago following same criteria as those used nowadays.

The Romans built a classy system of roads to guarantee the management of conquered area. They performed therefore by combining planet, gravel and bricks made from granite or volcanic lava. They ended up building over 50, 000 kilometres, and like on modern-day roads there have been signs and indicators telling travellers the exact distance for their location.

Innovation in the area of transportation infrastructure, and especially roadways, leads united states into the notion of ‘smart roads': roadways which use photosensitive paint for road markings which can be seen regardless of climate, creating symbols on the way area, roads that allow energy to be generated, also to be able to charge battery packs while operating an automobile.

Roman archLOWERED ROMAN ARCH

Arches have actually been around for 4, 000 many years as structural elements, nonetheless it was the Roman designers who have been the first to make efficient utilization of their resistant properties. They realised it had been not necessary to pay for a complete space at once and divided the arch into a few smaller parts, flattening the form to create a lower arch and repeat it at periods to produce stronger aids might cross lengthy covers. Certainly, the arch became one of the elements that describes the Roman architectural style.

In this situation, a similar comparison takes united states to Porto (north Portugal), and specifically on Infante D. Henrique Bridge, a definite illustration of the idea of the arch taken fully to the extreme. The bridge has an extremely slender polygonal arch whose primary period, made of post-tensioned reinforced concrete, features a definite arch of 280 metres and it is 1.50 m dense. Regardless of the arch’s look, the structure really works as a gantry bridge. The increase with this supposed arch is 25 m, therefore it has actually a rise/span proportion of 11.2, a global record of the type. The bridge ended up being built by Acciona Infrastructure in 2002.

Infante D. Henrique connection, Portugal. ACCIONA InfrastructureCONCRETE

The Romans had been the first to ever make and employ a tangible (opus caementicium) composed of a mixture of gravel with lime, sand and liquid. Definately not resembling modern concretes, they offered a highly important characteristic should they added volcanic earth towards combination inside right proportions: the blend could harden under water.

Probably one of the most singular innovations accomplished with this particular material is its self-healing properties. The self-healing is attained through addition, inside mix, of materials including a micro-organisms that stays latent and is just activated when a crack appears, creating calcite (calcium carbonate). This fills the holes developed by the fissure, plus the cement not only recovers its look but additionally its resistant capacity.

AQUEDUCTS

The Romans enjoyed some comforts particularly community bathrooms and commodes and a sewerage system. They certainly were possible compliment of aqueducts, which transported water because of the force of gravity. While they are not the first to ever use them, they did innovate and improve their performance and building, to such an extent that most are nevertheless working these days.

Dome of this Pantheon in Romein this instance, the development is based on the transportation of fresh water to seaside cities or even to islands with low reserves. The novelty is based on the introduction of a modular system of bins that have been towed with their destination by boats, called ‘XXL-Refresh’. The bins have actually some detectors that track the stresses borne because of the segments immediately, enabling the tug to adjust its navigation. This kind of transportation is more affordable and lasting for environment than using tanker vessels.

FLOATING BRIDGES

In many areas, Roman engineering is associated for military manufacturing. Drifting bridges (pontoons) had been mostly designed and built during wartime, and had been a speciality of Julius Caesar. In 55 CB he built a 400-metre-long pontoon to get across the lake Rhine. The building of a floating bridge without diverting the movement associated with the lake is quite tough, and it should be done quickly and precisely.

Right here the development lies in the 3D printer. Julius Caesar could print their connection and continue delivering his legions marching across European countries. The 3D printer is regarded as by the European Space department as outstanding invention of 3rd commercial revolution, as steam-engine and internal-combustion motor had been inside their time. The range of things that can be imprinted with a 3D printer nowadays is unlimited and it may be reproduced to practically all fields of technology (medicine, automotive, engineering, etc.). It can also let us participate in 'Master cook' because we could also print food!

As we have observed, municipal manufacturing is - and can keep on being - an integral consider the development of the human race. Municipal engineers happen, tend to be, and will be continuously looking for brand-new and certain components and products for building, improving building and management procedure while they complement. In this search they combine economic and optimisation criteria (strength and durability) with minimal environmental influence (pollution during manufacture and make use of, and also the end of the element’s working life) by making the best using normal resources and minimising waste. Essentially, searching for sustainability.



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